It turns out that this is a replacement for one that must have been "lost, mutilated, or destroyed."
Following is the transcription of Morris Goldstein's certificate of citizenship, with typed or handwritten information in blue and my notes in [brackets]:
Certificate of Citizenship No. 984234
Application No. 3 B - 1506
Personal description of holder as of date of issuance of this certificate; Age 34 years; sex male; color white; complexion dark; color of eyes gray; color of hair black; height 5 feet 7 1/2 inches; weight 165 pounds; visible distinctive marks scar on middle of forehead.
Marital status Married; race Hebrew; former nationality Russian [incorrect: should be Romanian].
I certify that the description above given is true and that the photograph affixed hereto is a likeness of me. [Unfortunately the image has suffered the ravages of time.]
[signed] Morris Goldstein
(Complete and true signature of holder)
The United States of America
District of Columbia
Be it known, that ---MORRIS GOLDSTEIN--- residing at Woodbine, Cape May County, New Jersey having applied to the Commissioner of Naturalization for a new certificate of citizenship pursuant to Section 32(a) of the act of June 29, 1906, as amended; having proved to the satisfaction of the commissioner that the applicant is now a citizen of the United State of America having been naturalized by the Superior Court of Newport County, at Newport, Rhode Island, on August 12, 1918 that a certificate of citizenship was lawfully issued to the applicant and that such certificate has been lost, mutilated, or destroyed:
Now Therefore, in pursuance of the authority contained in Section 32(a) of the act of June 29, 1906, as amended, this certificate of citizenship is issued this 30th day of July in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and thirty-one, and of our Independence the one hundred and fifty-sixth, and the seal of the Department of Labor affixed pursuant to statue.
[signed] Raymond F. Crist
Commissioner of Naturalization.
Morris Goldstein arrived in New York City on August 3, 1914 from Romania. He was drafted for WWI on June 5, 1918, and served from September 9, 1918 to November 7, 1918, where it appears that he spent about two months at Camp Jackson, the army training center outside of Columbia, South Carolina.
If the above replacement certificate is accurate, at some point between June and September 1918, Morris became a U.S. citizen in Rhode Island. I wonder why he didn't become a citizen in New York City, where he was living and working?
Update: I followed the suggestion of Emily Garber and wrote to USCIS for Morris Goldstein's Citizenshp File. See USCIS C-File for Morris Goldstein.