A refresher: Y-DNA is passed down from father to son. To determine the Y-DNA of my husband's grandfathers, I can test my husband for his paternal grandfather's Y-DNA, but I needed a male cousin, son of the brother of my mother-in-law, in order to determine the Y-DNA of my husband's other grandfather.
A picture may help visualize what I'm trying to explain. The rectangles represent men; the "cropped" rectangles represent women (who do not carry Y-DNA and therefore cannot pass it to their children).
Y-DNA and Haplogroup Result. He received this Y-DNA from his father, Harry, who received it from his father, Josef, who received it from his father, Aaron.
My husband's maternal grandfather, Morris Goldstein, received his Y-DNA from his father Itzik (or Isaac) Goldstein. I was able to learn this because I tested my husband's cousin, MG, for his Y-DNA, as well as autosomal DNA, at FamilyTreeDNA.
From the FamilyTreeDNA website:
"Haplogroup J-M172 is found at highest frequencies in the northern Middle East, west of the Zagros Mountains in Iran, to the Mediterranean Sea. It later spread throughout central Asia and south into India. J-M172 is tightly associated with the expansion of agriculture, which began about 10,000 years ago. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry, this lineage is found at substantial frequencies within Jewish populations." (italics mine)This is a screenshot of the Haplogroup Migration Map from FamilyTreeDNA, showing the migration of the long-ago ancestors of Morris Goldstein (haplogroup J2).
Compare that with the migration map for haplogroup R, which I previously shared, showing where those with Y-DNA in specifically the R1a haplogroup ended up - in Eastern Europe.
Thank you to MG for sharing your DNA.